4 valve instruments
The 4 valve instruments are distinguished by a number of special features.
One is, of course, the expansion of the tonal range at the lower end. In addition, all 4th valves are designed in a way that the quart valve can be converted to a quint valve by a crook.
But this is only one of the many advantages. The extra valve gives the instrument additional mass rendering the sound more voluminous and pithy.
The 4th valve also allows for alternative chords. This facilitates playing notes which are difficult to intonate, but what is even more interesting: notes played with the 4th valve have a different tone quality. For example, a d played with the 4th valve sounds much more free than when played with the 1st and 3rd valve. This allows for more flexibility and a richer sound quality.